How To Make Coffee With Ground Coffee? (Solution found)

Boil water in a saucepan on the stove. In a deep bowl, add 1 heaping tablespoon of coffee per serving. Pour a small amount of boiling water over the grounds to saturate them, and then add 6 ounces of water per serving. Use a spoon to press the coffee grounds to the bottom of the bowl.


What is the best way to use ground coffee?

16 Creative Ways to Use Old Coffee Grounds

  1. Fertilize Your Garden. Most soil does not contain the essential nutrients needed for optimal plant growth.
  2. Compost It for Later.
  3. Repel Insects and Pests.
  4. Remove Fleas from Your Pet.
  5. Neutralize Odors.
  6. Use It as a Natural Cleaning Scrub.
  7. Scour Your Pots and Pans.
  8. Exfoliate Your Skin.

Can you use ground coffee as instant?

Grounded coffee can be used as an instant coffee substitute; it is nearly identical to the preparation method used with a french press. The only difference is that gravity, rather than a filter, moves the coffee grounds to the bottom.

Can you make a cup of coffee with ground coffee?

Put one tablespoon of coffee grounds per cup into your bowl. Pour in a small amount of boiling water, letting it fully saturate the grounds. Add the appropriate amount of hot water for the servings of grounds in your bowl. Let it stand for four minutes.

How do you make coffee on the stove with ground coffee?

How to Make Coffee Without a Coffee Maker

  1. Boil Water. In a saucepan, add as much water as you’d like coffee, plus a few extra tablespoons.
  2. Add coffee. Once the water is at a rolling boil, add your favorite medium-to fine-ground coffee—about 2 tablespoons for every 6 ounces of water in the pot.
  3. Give it time.
  4. Ladle it out.

How do you use coffee grounds indoors?

“The best way to use coffee grounds for plants is adding it to your compost pile, and then mixing a little bit of that compost in with your potting soil,” Marino says. Diluting coffee grounds works the same way as diluting fertilizer: using just a teaspoon of coffee grounds per gallon of water.

Do you need a coffee machine for ground coffee?

Thankfully, coffee can still be brewed without a coffee maker. After all, people drank coffee before electricity. It’s actually surprisingly easy to make great coffee without a coffee maker. All you need is freshly roasted coffee, a grinder, hot water and a mug.

Can I just add hot water to ground coffee?

The simplest way to make coffee without a coffee maker is by adding hot water to coffee grounds. If you’re in a rush, just boil water in your kettle, or heat some water on the stovetop then pour it into a mug with the coffee granules. Allow the coffee to sit for about 4 minutes for the best flavor. Sip and enjoy!

Does ground coffee dissolve in water?

Only instant coffee will dissolve fully when it comes in contact with water. Ground coffee beans are only part soluble and will not be able to dissolve in water. When trying to dissolve ground coffee beans, at least 70% of the granules will be left at the bottom of the mug.

Can you pour hot water over ground coffee?

Add just enough water to cover the coffee grounds (~66ml) so the coffee can “bloom.” Then wait 45 seconds. This is a step that lets gas escape from the coffee to help improve the overall flavor. After the bloom, start pouring the remaining hot water over the coffee in small circles.

How do you make coffee taste good at home?

First, let’s take a look at a few tips to help you ensure your coffee maker is up to the task of brewing great tasting coffee.

  1. Tip 1 – Clean your coffee machine.
  2. Tip 2 – Do a trial run.
  3. Tip 3 – Use Cold Water.
  4. Tip 4 – Check Your Temperature.
  5. Tip 5 – Try Filtered Water.
  6. Tip 6 – Be Sure Your Beans Are Fresh.

How do you make instant coffee with ground coffee?


  1. Add desired coffee beans to the coffee grinder. Put it on the finest setting available.
  2. Grind the beans.
  3. Place sifter on top of a medium bowl and add ground coffee.
  4. Sift into bowl.
  5. Anything still left in the sifter, send through the grinder again.

How do you make old fashioned coffee?

The old-school brewing method involves placing coffee grounds and a filter over a coffee cup, then slowly pouring water over the grounds in a method somewhere between a french press and a percolator. For many coffee enthusiasts, it’s one of the best ways to brew.

Can you brew coffee on the stove?

To make coffee on your stovetop, start by heating water in a kettle or pan. Once the water starts bubbling, add 1-2 tablespoons of coffee for every cup of water and stir the coffee grounds around. Next, take the mixture off the heat, cover it, and leave it to rest.

How do you make instant coffee on the stove?

How to brew instant coffee?

  1. Heat water in a stovetop pot, kettle, or a microwave.
  2. Add coffee to a mug.
  3. Pour over hot water (not boiling) and stir well to dissolve the powder.
  4. Add in sugar, milk, or creamer of choice.

How to Make Coffee Without a Coffee Maker: Alternative Brewing Methods

We’d want you to know that if you visit and decide to purchase a product, we may receive a small compensation. Every morning, if you’re like the majority of people, you probably rely on your drip coffee machine to supply you with fresh, hot coffee. Even while a few of you have the luxury of brewing coffee in a Chemex every day with freshly ground, home-roasted beans, the most of us stagger to our coffee machines, press the button, and quietly ask them to brew quicker. The question is, what happens while the button is inactive.

When there is a power outage, what do you do?

(If it’s the final one, you might want to evaluate the people you’re spending your time with.) Let’s figure out a method to get you some caffeine in your system.

While none of these will compare to the taste of freshly brewed coffee made with freshly ground beans and steaming hot, filtered water, you’ll be able to get your caffeine fix until you can get a replacement drip coffee machine or arrange alternate travel arrangements.


Now that we’ve answered all of your questions, it’s time to get to the crucial part: showing you how to brew coffee without using a coffee maker in the first place. There are a variety of solutions available for preparing coffee without the use of a machine, so choose your selection carefully.


If you just have a limited amount of goods on hand, this will most likely be the best alternative for you. You can make a cup of coffee, or even a pot of coffee, straight on your stovetop if you have the necessary tools. To learn how to brew stovetop coffee, simply follow these simple instructions.


  1. Fill your pan halfway with water. Use slightly more water than you anticipate using for the amount of coffee you intend to make since part of it will be lost to boiling and soaking into the grounds. Stir the coffee grinds into the water until they are completely dissolved. For the amount of water you used, use the same amount of coffee grounds you would use in your coffee maker. Bring your coffee to a boil on a medium-high stove using a medium-sized pot. Stir the coffee grounds occasionally to prevent them from burning on the bottom of the pan. Boil your coffee for two minutes without covering it. Let it rest for four minutes after removing the pot from the heat source. This permits the earth to settle to the bottom of the container. Not only should the burner be turned off, but a ladle should be used to scoop the brewed coffee into your mug without taking any grounds with it. This may be accomplished using a tiny ladle. You may also pour the coffee from your saucepan very gently if you don’t have a ladle at all. The earth is heavy and will primarily remain at the bottom of the pile


You may be one of those people that awakens each morning with all of your synapses blazing, ready to take on the challenges that lie ahead. Perhaps you’ve found yourself wondering, “Can you steep coffee as you would tea?” or something similar. For those of you who responded yes to any or both of those questions, you’re in luck: you can build yourself a small tea bag for coffee grinds, much like the French did during the 18th Century. First and foremost, Morning Person, grab out your kitchen toolkit!


  • Ground coffee, hot water, a coffee filter, string (any sort will do as long as it isn’t treated with wax! ), a mug, and a spoon are all you’ll need.


  1. A single serving of coffee grinds should be measured out and then poured into your filter
  2. Close the filter tightly, forming a little pouch filled with ground coffee
  3. Attach it to your cup with a length of thread, leaving one long end to dangle outside your cup, similar to a tea bag
  4. Use whatever technique you have available to you to heat the water, such as a kettle, a saucepan, or even a cup in the microwave
  5. Fill an empty mug halfway with the coffee bag you just made. In a slow, steady stream, pour hot water over the coffee bag in the cup, being careful not to overfill the cup. Pour in the coffee and let it sit for about four minutes. You may adjust the duration to suit your needs in order to make your brew stronger or weaker. Before drinking, remove the filter and toss it in the trash.


If your coffee machine breaks down and you don’t have any replacement filters, you’ve had bad luck and will most likely need to make a trip to the grocery shop. If, on the other hand, you happen to have a strainer, things could just come out all right for you. Using a strainer, similar to the stovetop approach described above, is another common method of brewing coffee without the need of a filter.

However, any old strainer will not suffice in this case. Make sure to choose a strainer with very small pores, such as a double-layer mesh strainer, to prevent your coffee grounds from leaking into your cup while brewing.


  • Having a broken coffee machine and no coffee filters is a dreadful situation to be in, and you will almost certainly need to go to the food store. Things could work out for you in the end, however, if you have a strainer on hand. Using a strainer, similar to the stovetop approach described above, is another common way of brewing coffee without the use of a filter or paper filter. However, any old strainer will not suffice in this situation. Make sure to use a strainer with very small pores, such as a double-layer mesh strainer, to prevent your coffee grounds from leaking into your cup when brewing.


  1. Using a measuring cup or a saucepan, fill your kettle or saucepan with the appropriate quantity of water for the number of cups you intend to prepare. Add the appropriate amount of coffee grounds to the brewing pot based on the number of cups you intend to make. Incorporate it thoroughly
  2. To begin, bring the water to a boil and maintain a rolling boil for two minutes. The saucepan should be turned off at this point. Pour the coffee through your mesh strainer, which you should hold over your mug. During the process of pouring the coffee into your mug, the strainer will capture any grounds that come out of the pot. In contrast to the saucepan approach, you will not be need to wait the additional time required for the grounds to settle because you will be using a strainer.


Which is more convenient: employing this more rustic, less costly, and environmentally friendly brewing technique, or using a Keurig to prepare a cup of coffee on demand? It takes a little patience, but the end result almost ensures that you will not be drinking coffee grounds in the future. Rather of a traditional coffee mug, use a mason jar to serve your Hanky Method brew to make it appear embarrassingly cool. You know, if you’re like that sort of stuff or whatever.


  • Coffee grinds, hot water, binder paper clips or clothespins, and a little imagination An untangled hanky or other untangled linen or cotton material (a piece of cheesecloth will suffice)
  • A mug or a mason jar would do.


  1. To construct an in-mug pouch large enough to accommodate one serving of coffee grinds, place your hanky across the top of the cup and gently press down in the center. Binder clips or clothespins should be used to hold the fabric in place. Ensure that you use at least three clips to ensure that the hanky does not fall into your coffee. Fill the pouch with a single-cup quantity of coffee grinds
  2. Seal the pouch. A modest amount of hot water should be poured over the grounds. Allow at least 30 seconds for the grounds to become totally saturated. Using a slow and cautious pouring motion, pour in the remaining hot water. Keep an eye on your clips as you’re pouring and make any necessary adjustments if they begin to slip. Remove the hanky and coffee grounds, and then sit back and enjoy your coffee
You might be interested:  How To Make Ground Coffee Without A Coffee Maker? (Question)


It is possible to replicate one of the most popular brewing methods among coffee enthusiasts with only a few simple items. In your kitchen, or even over a campfire, it’s simple enough to complete. If your French press coffee machine isn’t working properly, try this alternative approach instead.


  • Coffee grounds, preferably coarsely ground
  • Hot water
  • A tablespoon
  • A large bowl
  • A mug


  1. Fill your bowl with one spoonful of coffee grinds per cup of coffee
  2. Allowing it to completely soak the grounds, pour in a little quantity of hot water and mix well. Fill your bowl with hot water to the right level for the number of servings of ground coffee. Permit it to rest for four minutes. When the grinds have dropped to the bottom of the bowl, gently push them down with the back of your tablespoon. Take cautious not to get water on your clothes. Using your spoon, carefully pour the coffee into your mug, making sure to retain the crushed grounds in their place at the bottom of the bowl and prevent them from dropping into your mug


Time-travel back several decades, before the coffee machine (or perhaps the invention of the coffee machine) became a widespread home appliance, and prepare a cup of coffee the old-fashioned way.thecowboyway. Don’t be concerned. Making cowboy coffee does not necessitate the use of a horse or a ten-gallon hat. You can, however, make it practically anyplace as long as you don’t mind a small amount of grit in your cup of coffee.


  • Grinds from a cup of coffee Mug
  • Water
  • Kettle or saucepan
  • A spoon or similar instrument to mix things up with


  1. Fill your kettle with one spoonful of coffee grinds per serving of coffee
  2. This will make one cup of coffee. Fill the kettle with approximately eight ounces of water each serving. Make sure to thoroughly mix it. Place the kettle over a fire (or on a stovetop) and bring the contents to a rolling boil
  3. Remove the kettle from the heat after it has been boiling for approximately two minutes. Allow approximately four minutes for the grinds to drop to the bottom of the container. Slowly pour the coffee into your mug, being sure to avoid the grounds as much as possible. After all, this is cowboy coffee, after all. It’s missing a few foundations, don’t you think, partner?


You don’t have a drip machine, string, or extra time on your hands? You can have your coffee, too, as long as you have access to electricity and a microwave. You can’t get much simpler than this when it comes to brewing methods.


  1. Fill your cup halfway with water and heat it for roughly two minutes in the microwave. Ideally, the water should be quite hot, but not boiling
  2. Add a spoonful of coffee grounds and mix well. When you first add them, you’ll hear a sizzling sound
  3. This is normal. To ensure that the grounds reach the bottom of the mug, allow it to sit for approximately four minutes. Please enjoy your coffee, but avoid taking that last sip that is full of coffee grounds unless you want your coffee chewy.


If you thought we were good at coffee in the United States, the Swedes put us to shame. When it comes to making coffee, one of their most creative and popular techniques doesn’t really require a standard coffee machine. There is an egg involved, though, which makes it a far more intriguing story.


  • Fresh egg(s)
  • Coarsely ground coffee (about 1 to 1 12 tbsp per serving for 1 serving)
  • Water at room temperature
  • Ice cold water Saucepan
  • A cup or a tiny serving dish
  • Filter (a cheesecloth or a hanky would suffice) and set aside


  1. In a saucepan or small pot, bring the room-temperature water (about 1 cup per serving) to a boil. While the water is rising to a boil, crack the egg into a cup and set it aside for later. If you’re cooking a large number of servings, a small bowl may be required. Place the entire egg in the container, shell and all. As soon as the egg has been smashed and mixed, pour in the coffee grounds and whisk everything together
  2. Now that the water should be boiling, it’s time to add the slurry to it. Boil the mixture for approximately 3-5 minutes, paying close attention to ensure that it does not overflow. Immediately after, you’ll splash in your ice-cold water as a large chunk of slurry clumps up and floats to the surface (1 cup). Allow a minute to pass until the pieces and remain grinds settle to the bottom of the pan. Using whatever improvised filter you have on hand, slowly pour the coffee through the filter and into your mug. The silky smoothness and absence of acidity are unexpectedly excellent, especially when considering the somewhat odd way of preparation


You may use this cold brew approach if you have some extra time until your next caffeine fix or if you’re the sort of person who enjoys weekly meal (and coffee) preparation.


  • Finely ground coffee
  • 2 wide-mouth mason jars
  • Cheesecloth or another filtration technique (such as a fine mesh strainer, hanky, or similar)
  • 2 cups water Water
  • You’ll need a refrigerator and 14 to 24 hours of patience.


  1. Put the ground in a mason jar with the water in a 1:5 ratio, soak them down, wait 30 seconds, and then pour the remainder of the water to the jar
  2. Combine all of the ingredients in a mason jar and screw on the lid
  3. Place it in your refrigerator and let 14-24 hours (depending on the desired strength*) before using. Once you’ve given it the necessary length of time, place the strainer over the other mason jar (or a bowl) with just enough room in the middle to capture any grounds that may have accumulated. Use clips to hold the coffee cup in place if required, and then pour the coffee into the other container. You may keep the filtered concentrate in your refrigerator for 7-10 days if you store it properly. If you want to serve it, simply pour off a little bit and dilute** it with water until you achieve the required strength.

Using a greater grounds-to-water ratio (e.g., 1:3) rather than exceeding the 20-hour time limit will produce a more potent concentrate. The same is true for the low-end market. Instead of going under 14 hours, use a one-to-eight ratio. It is recommended that you do not dilute the entire batch at once unless you intend to consume the full batch in less than 3 days. It doesn’t matter how you feel about it; there is no judgment here.)


I’m joking, of course. However, if the very thought of being without your morning cup of zing makes you want to throw your beloved coffee mug across the room, try keeping a handful of things on hand in case of emergency.


First and foremost, despite its bitter flavor and terrible reputation among coffee lovers, instant coffee has managed to survive for almost a century for a good reason: it is extremely handy.

Keeping a stock of instant coffee in your cupboard can literally save your life if you find yourself in a coffee-related crisis. It may not be the most delectable cup of coffee you’ve ever had, but it will help you avoid the migraine you’ll get if you don’t drink your morning cup of joe completely.


They’re easy to come by, reasonably priced, and versatile enough to be used on a variety of cooking surfaces, from an electric burner to a camp stove to a campfire. A dependable percolator might come in handy when your drip coffee maker fails on a Tuesday morning or when your electricity is knocked out for several days following a severe storm. Brew methods like as the pour over, French press, and Aeropress are also reasonably priced, and they serve as ideal backups (or replacements) for drip coffee machines.


We know what you’re thinking.the thought of drinking unfiltered coffee surely sends shivers down your spine. How about all of those grinds crunching your your feet while you’re simply trying to enjoy your morning cup of coffee? No, thank you very much. However, the good news is that it is not necessary to proceed in this manner. You can still brew coffee without using a filter; you’ll just have to thoroughly submerge the coffee grinds in water, just like you would with a French press, to achieve the same results.

Can you make Keurig coffee without a machine?

What do you do when your belovedK-Elite finally gives up the ghost and you’re left with a dozen K-cups and no coffee maker in which to utilize them. Using a foil cover, remove the coffee from the cup, pour it into a filter or strainer, and then gently pour hot or boiling water over the coffee. It’s important to consider how strong you want your coffee to be when doing this, and depending on how much java you’re creating, you may need to use many K-cups at once.

Can you make coffee without electricity?

Simple: yes, as long as you have a means to boil water that doesn’t require electricity, such as a gas stove or a bonfire, the answer to the previous question is yes. A pour over technique, for example, allows you to soak your coffee grinds and produce a manual drip brewing procedure with no effort.


In conclusion, there are several options for making coffee when you’re short on time, and no matter whatever technique you use for brewing coffee in the absence of a coffee maker, we hope you’re sipping on a steaming hot cup of freshly brewed coffee. Cheers to caffeinating!

Recommended Reads

  • Guides to Purchasing Seattle’s Finest Cup of Coffee Are you planning a trip to Seattle? To keep yourself fueled, visit any or all of these interesting coffee shops. These establishments serve anything from espresso to whole bean coffee. Coffee Facts and Figures Chile Coffee: The Future of the Coffee Industry in the Land of the Incas While you may be familiar with the coffee industry in its neighboring countries, Chile is not a major player in the world of coffee production. See our guide to this beer for more information. Coffee Facts and Figures Belize Coffee: The Mayan Rainforest Is Responsible For The Production Of Brews. While Belize is lagging behind the rest of the globe in terms of coffee output, the majority of the country’s beans are cultivated in the Mayan jungle. More information may be found in our guide. Guides to Purchasing RV Coffee Makers: The Best ChoicesAre you a coffee addict who also enjoys traveling? What about taking your coffee with you on the road? Find some of the greatest coffee makers for your RV or camper that you can bring along on your next vacation right here in this section
  • Coffee Facts and Figures Taiwanese Coffee is a specialty coffee produced in Taiwan. Find out more about Taiwanese coffee in this article! Learn about the history of these well-known roasts as well as how to create Taiwanese coffee at home. Coffee Facts and Figures Bali Coffee: A One-of-a-Kind Experience Kopi Luwak coffee is a pricey, but deserving brew of coffee that can be obtained and made in the Indonesian island of Bali. Here’s where you may find out more about its manufacture and flavor.
Make every day delicious

Sign up for a free email that will guide you through the process of brewing great coffee at home.

Brew like a Baristafrom home

The Home Barista Coffee Course is a 14-lesson video course that teaches you how to make consistently delicious coffee at home. Learn how to brew coffee that is as good as your neighborhood barista for a fraction of the cost by watching the course online or downloading the whole course. More information may be found here.

How to Make Coffee Without a Coffee Maker [5 Simple Hacks]

If you’re a coffee enthusiast, what’s your worst nightmare? My favorite is the day when I wake up sluggish and with my eyes foggy, and I don’t have access to a brewer, drip coffee machine, or any of my other typical methods of brewing my morning cup of coffee. I’m afraid I might have to resort to instant coffee if things become really bad. Don’t worry, I’m not going to tell you to start drinking instant coffee right now! That kind of s**t is better left to my nightmares. Prepare to have your eyes opened to a few easy methods of preparing coffee without the need of a coffee machine (in fact, there are five of them).

It’s a terrific way to prepare coffee without using a coffee machine, as long as you’re willing to wait between 12 and 24 hours. However, if you awaken to the unfathomable nightmare of a broken coffee maker, these tactics will ensure that you are caffeinated as soon as possible.

Things to Keep in Mind When Brewing Coffee Without a Coffee Maker

Because you’ve found yourself without a coffee maker, there’s a strong possibility that the brew you’re going to prepare won’t be one of your finest – but there are a few basic and well-known measures you can take to ensure that it’s almost as excellent as the one you had before:

  • Use freshly ground coffee–this is an article of religion for those who are passionate about their coffee. When feasible, use freshly ground beans whenever possible. You only have approximately 15-20 minutes before your beans begin to lose some of the goodness that contributes to their distinctive flavor. Make use of freshly roasted coffee–a half-decent cup of coffee is always preceded by a good batch of beans. You’ll want beans that are of high quality and have been roasted within the past two weeks. The proper water (in terms of temperature and kind) – Too hot (boiling water) and your beans will be scalded, and too cold and your beans will be under-extracted. The ideal temperature for hot brewed coffee varies based on the brew technique used, but as a general rule, the sweet spot is between 195 and 205 degrees Fahrenheit. Simple method to accomplish this (without having to carry a thermometer) is to heat water to boiling point and let it to settle for 30 seconds before straining (time it). Use the proper type of water for your coffee to earn additional points. Work with what you have– while there are a plethora of coffee brewing techniques available to assist you brew delicious coffee, you’re restricted to the stuff you have laying about the house or office. Make use of your resources

1. The Cowboy Method (Cowboy Coffee)

The Cowboy Method transports you back to the days of good coffee brewing in the old-fashioned method – with your best beans and almost boiling (or barely boiling) water. You can find our whole instructions here: How to brew cowboy coffee the old-fashioned way. We’ll teach you how to create it from the comfort of your own home — you won’t need to sit around a campfire or don a cowboy hat to accomplish it. It’s simply a question of improvising with what you have on hand – a pot, a heat source, ground coffee, and a little water, for instance.

To be sure, it is vital to note that the quality of the coffee is quite significant (see point 1) Once the cowboy coffee is prepared to perfection, it should be smooth and enjoyable to sip.

What You Need

  • Medium/fine-ground coffee beans (approximately two teaspoons per six-ounce glass of water ( 2 ) are used in this recipe. Boiling water on a stove or heat source (campfire? )
  • Pan or pot (a small saucepan is preferable because it is simpler to maneuver)
  • A mug or a cup for coffee

How To Do It

  1. Fill a clean pan halfway with water, a little more than you would normally use when brewing your coffee. For example, if you normally use two cups of water, you should increase the amount by 3/4 cup this time. A small amount of water will be left in the pan after using the saucepan method, along with the grounds/sludge. Start by placing the pan on your stove (or over a campfire) and turning the heat on. When the water comes to a boil, pour in your coffee and stir well. If you want a strong cup of coffee, use about two tablespoons of coffee for every six ounces of water. However, you can adjust this amount depending on how strong you want your coffee. Following in the footsteps of cowboy tradition, I’m just winging it
  2. Remove the pan from the heat and immediately cover it with a lid. Wait four to five minutes before removing the pan from the heat. When you see that all of the grounds have sunk to the bottom of the pan, you’re ready to serve your coffee to your guests. To assist the grounds in sinking, sprinkle some cold water on them if they haven’t done so already. There is no need for a fancy kettle in this situation
  3. Simply pour the coffee from the top into your cup. Use a ladle to serve larger portions of the soup that have been “filtered.”
You might be interested:  How Long Do Green Coffee Beans Last? (Correct answer)

If you’re planning a camping trip, here’s another list that will teach you how to make coffee in the great outdoors.

2. A Makeshift Coffee Filter

Makeshift Filter – Kettle – Mug – Ground Coffee – Clips or a band to hold everything together If you don’t have a Hario, a Chemex, or a Kalita Wave, how in the world do you make pour-over coffee? Try this homemade coffee filter, which allows you to employ this brewing technique with items that you most likely already have in your kitchen.

What You Need

  • Pour-over-style coffee made with freshly ground coffee (use a grind that is comparable to a pour-over
  • Medium-fine)
  • Water that is barely below boiling point
  • The following items are required: a regular paper filter (or something similar if you don’t already have one – see below)
  • Coffee cup in the large size
  • Paper clips, binders, or elastics – anything that will keep the improvised filter in place securely would suffice.

A handkerchief, a cotton kitchen towel, a paper towel (which has excellent absorbency and is ideal for filtering; however, make sure it is thick enough to avoid ripping), or cheesecloth may all be used as substitutes for coffee filters if you don’t have any on hand (doubled or tripled to ensure no grounds find their way to your brew). Final conclusion: for this procedure, a handkerchief is the most suitable material, since it is both readily accessible and sturdy enough to endure the temperature and pressure of the water that is being poured over it.

If you find yourself in a desperate circumstance, any clean cloth will suffice (3).

This is a picture of me using a Hario Filter.

Be use of a hanky or a cheesecloth, but make sure to wash it thoroughly before use!

How To Do It

  1. Prepare your filter by soaking it in water. Take your clean handkerchief (or other alternate filter) and fold it into a square that will fit the opening of your mug or cup, as shown below. Make sure to leave a two-inch margin of fabric around the edge of the cup, which should hang over the edges of the cup. Clamp the handkerchief to the sides of your cup so that it is secure. Verify that the clips are securely fastened to ensure that the cloth remains in place while you are pouring hot water
  2. Prepare your coffee by grinding it to a medium-coarse consistency. It is preferable to use a high-quality burr grinder that consistently produces consistent output. In order to achieve the first marking or the first cup symbol on your grinder, grind it till you reach that mark or symbol. Once you’ve brewed enough coffee to meet the desired volume, transfer the ground coffee to your filter set-up for processing. Give it a little shake to ensure that the grounds are evenly distributed on the filter. Bring two cups of water to a boil. Once the water has reached boiling point, remove it from the heat source. Allow the water to cool for thirty seconds before using it. Pour a small amount of water over the coffee grounds, just enough to moisten the grounds. Allow it to bloom for around thirty seconds — a process typical to pour-over systems that indicates your coffee is fresh and is producing CO2 gases – before drinking. Slowly pour the remaining water into the bowl in four batches of thirty seconds each, until you have used up all of it. You might need to tease the grounds with a spoon if you’re using a thick improvised filter in order to facilitate the drip flow
  3. After this two-minute procedure is complete, all of the coffee grounds should be completely saturated. The clips and your improvised filter may be gently removed once all of the water has been absorbed by the handkerchief.

BloomingPouringWaitingTeasing After all that, assuming you followed the instructions above, as well as the three principles listed above, you should have a tasty homemade brew on your hands in no time!

3. Use a Coffee Bag

BloomingPouringWaitingTeasing After all that, assuming you followed the instructions above, as well as the three principles listed above, you should have a tasty homemade brew on your hands in no time at all!

What You Need

  • Coffee bag (available at any store)
  • Hot water (just below boiling)
  • And sugar (optional).

How To Do It

  1. Use a kettle, pan, or saucepan to heat the water
  2. Alternatively, you may just microwave your cup. Bring the water to a boil, then switch off the heat immediately. Allow the boiling water to cool for approximately 30 seconds
  3. Place the coffee bag in a clean cup and slowly pour the water into it while holding the cup upright. Check to see that the coffee grounds-filled coffee bag is completely soaked with hot water, up to the level you wish. Steep the coffee bag in the boiling water for around 4 minutes, depending on how strong the coffee is. The steeping time may be adjusted to suit the desired strength of your beverage: A weaker cup will be produced in 2-3 minutes, while a stronger cup will be produced in 5 to 6 minutes. As soon as you’ve achieved the specified steeping time, gently take the coffee bag from the pot and discard it.


Perhaps, but the absence of coffee machines will not be a hindrance. This approach is quick and simple, and it does not necessitate the use of a coffee brewer.

4. Make a DIY Coffee Bag

Regarding the brewing procedure, this approach is fairly similar to the one described above (The Coffee Bag), but it incorporates a DIY twist. After realizing that you have run out of coffee bags, what should you do? .just make a friggin coffee bag yourself instead of crying or using instant coffee! A nice cup of coffee may be simply made using any sort of coffee filter that you happen to have laying around (as well as some coffee, of course). You may also use a tea bag, but carefully replace the tea with coffee grinds after the bag has been opened.

It’s fairly simple: you’re manufacturing a tea bag and substituting medium-coarse coffee grounds for the tea.

What You Need

  • Water that is barely below boiling point
  • A heat source (such as an electric pot, stovetop kettle, saucepan, or microwave oven)
  • And String (ideally not covered with plastic or anything else that can melt when exposed to heat)
  • Coffee grinds (may be mild to coarse in consistency)

How To Do It

  1. Bring the water to a boil by heating it using any available heat source. Once it comes to a boil, remove it from the heat immediately. Scoop out the quantity of coffee grounds you normally use for a cup of coffee – around two teaspoons per 250 mL of water – and set it aside. Using a length of string, knot the top of the coffee filter securely around the grinds in the centre of it. Make sure not to overfill the bag with coffee grounds — you want enough space for the grounds to expand a little as they bloom. Remove just enough string from the bag to allow you to easily take it out of the cup
  2. And Placing your coffee bag into the cup and pouring hot water over it will yield the best results. Achieve that the cup is filled to the proper amount and that the bag is entirely submerged in order to ensure uniform extraction of your grounds
  3. Keep the coffee bag in the cup and let it to steep for a few minutes. Pour the tea into a cup and steep for 2-3 minutes if you want a lesser flavor, or 4-5 minutes if you want something stronger. Remove the coffee bag from your brew when the steeping period has expired by pulling the cord on the bag.

Making a coffee bag:PRO TIP: Before pulling out the coffee bag, give it a little press with the back of a spoon to make sure it is well sealed. This will help to extract the leftover coffee fluids from the grounds and into your brew, resulting in a stronger combination of coffee and water.

5. The Improvised French Press

In the event that your French press is not easily available, but you still like the rich, fatty, and delicious brew that French press coffee produces, you may use this method. It’s comparable to the cowboy approach, but with a bit more polish and sophistication. We’ll recreate the French press procedure using easily available kitchen materials such coffee cups and hot water to save time and resources. It will be virtually as excellent as a French press in terms of quality.

What You Need

  • Freshly ground coffee (medium/coarse grinds are preferable)
  • 2 clean cups (water should be slightly below boiling) (one for brewing, one for drinking). Even better, if you have anything with a spout, such as a heatproof measuring cup, that would be ideal

How To Do It

  1. Using a coarse mill, grind the beans. You’re striving for a flavor that’s close to that of sea salt. Depending on how strong you want it, grind around two teaspoons of grinds for every 250ml/1 cup of water
  2. Fill a clean, empty cup halfway with ground coffee. Pour in enough hot water (which has been cooled down for thirty seconds after boiling) to completely cover the grounds — you’re only aiming to soak them with this method. Wait around thirty seconds for the grounds to blossom before proceeding. Once the thirty-second flowering period has expired, you may next pour the remainder of your water onto the grounds in order to fill your cup to capacity. Set your timers for four minutes and let the coffee to brew while you work. PRO TIP: To make a stronger cup, add another minute to the brewing time. To make a less aggressive cup, subtract one minute from the time.)
  3. If you have reached the end of your time limit, gently and slowly transfer your coffee to the cup you will be sipping from. This needs dexterity, but it shouldn’t be too difficult if you have a steady hand. Because your wet grounds will have gone to the bottom of the steeping cup (for the most part), don’t add the remaining 30 or so milliliters of water. (PRO TIP: a strainer, as well as a big spoon held at the edge of the cup from which you’re pouring, can assist in keeping the grounds at bay.)

The Bottom Line

I’m not suggesting that you have to start making coffee in a pot and pan right away. However, isn’t it wonderful to be able to sleep better at night? One of these tips may come in helpful whether you’re on the road, going somewhere, or camping with your friends and family. No matter how much you enjoy outdoor activities, you never know when your coffee maker will decide to quit on you – and a saucepan, hot water, and your trusty coffee grinds may be all you have left to make coffee. And we’ll keep rescuing you from more difficult circumstances with our other brewing tips, which you can find here.

Do you have any thoughts on these approaches?

Please do not hesitate to mention them in the comments.

Frequently Asked Questions

The type of heat you have access to determines how you prepare coffee when you don’t have access to electricity. Camping enthusiasts may make cowboy coffee either over an open fire or on a portable camp stove. If you’re boiling water over an open flame, be sure you have a safe means to remove the pan of water from the flames after it’s reached boiling point. If you live in an area where power outages are common, consider having a Jet Boil or other camp burner on hand to boil water for coffee when the electricity goes out.

  1. If you don’t have a coffee filter, you may make do with a variety of other items.
  2. If you ever run out of filters for your drip coffee maker, paper towels may be shortened to fit within the machine.
  3. A kitchen towel (as long as you don’t mind it becoming stained coffee-colored) or a cotton handkerchief are both wonderful options for cleaning up after yourself.
  4. Coffee grounds are edible, however they can be a touch gritty if they aren’t ground very finely, so be careful.
  5. The minimal amount of coffee grounds that you could ingest when making cowboy coffee or one of these other recipes is completely safe for consumption.

If you are using an immersion brew, you may need to alter the duration to achieve the extraction you need. You may test it out by sneaking a sample with a spoon while you’re approaching near to your brewing window. References

  1. Cowboy Coffee: The Lonesome Art Of Making It (2016, July 05). Szerlip, S. (retrieved from)
  2. Szerlip, S. (2013, May 22). The Art of Making Coffee Without a Coffeemaker – Chef Hacks How to brew coffee without a coffee machine, as retrieved from the website (n.d.). This information was obtained from

How to Brew Coffee

The NCA Guide to Brewing Essentials is a comprehensive resource for homebrewers. Coffee is a personal beverage; the best method to prepare it is the manner that you enjoy it the most. Having saying that, understanding a few principles will aid you in improving your overall technique. We advise you to experiment with different roasts, origins, and preparation techniques from here on out to see what works best for you. Here are some pointers on how to make a traditional cup of coffee.

The Equipment

Maintain the cleanliness of your gear, from bean grinders and filters to coffee machines, after each use. Using clear, hot water (or wiping it clean completely), rinse and dry well with an absorbent cloth. It is critical to ensure that no grounds have been permitted to gather and that no coffee oil (caffeol) has accumulated, since this might cause subsequent cups of coffee to taste bitter and rancid. If you use a single-serve coffee maker, be sure to read our instructions on how to keep your machine in good working order.

The Beans

Great coffee begins with exceptional beans. The quality and flavor of your coffee are not only impacted by your preferred brewing method, but also by the type of coffee you choose to brew. To learn more about the differences between roasts, see our guide to different styles of roasting (also available in Spanish). Some of the flavoring elements are as follows:

  • The nation of origin and the region in which it was born
  • The type of bean – arabica, robusta, or a combination of the two
  • Theroasttype
  • What is the texture of your grinder?

It’s important to remember that there are no right or wrong options when it comes to coffee – for example, you may pick a dark, rich espresso roast coffee and yet have it ground to be used in a drip system. Have fun experimenting with and tasting different combinations.


Coffee should be purchased as soon as possible after it has been roasted. The use of freshly roasted coffee is critical to producing a high-quality cup, therefore buy your coffee in modest quantities (ideally every one to two weeks). Please refer to our helpful hints on how to store coffee to ensure that it remains as fresh and delicious as possible. Please do not re-use your coffee grounds to brew more coffee in the future. Once the coffee has been brewed, all of the desirable coffee tastes have been removed, leaving just the bitter ones behind.

The Grind

In order to get the freshest possible coffee, if you purchase whole bean coffee, ground your beans as near to the brew time as feasible to provide the freshest possible coffee. A burr or mill grinder is preferable because the coffee is ground to a constant size using a burr or mill grinder. Due to the fact that some coffee will be ground more finely than others, a blade grinder is not the best option. If you regularly grind your coffee at home using a blade grinder, give it a try at the shop with a burr grinder – you’ll be amazed at the difference it can make!

You might be interested:  How Much Is Starbucks Coffee? (Solution)

In the event that your coffee tastes bitter, it is likely that it has been over-extracted or ground too fine.

This easy infographic will assist you in determining the appropriate texture for your favorite brewing technique.

Will you be making use of a French press to make your coffee? Which drip filter is better, a flat or a cone? A gold mesh filter, perhaps? They will grind it particularly for the manner of preparation you have chosen.

The Water

The water you use has a significant impact on the taste and quality of your coffee. If your tap water is not good or if it has a strong odor or flavor, such as chlorine, use filtered or bottled water to replace it. Make sure to use cold water if you’re using tap water, and to let it run for a few seconds before filling your coffee pot. Stay away from distilled or softened water.

Coffee-to-Water Ratio

The “Golden Ratio” is a basic rule of thumb that states that one to two teaspoons of ground coffee should be used for every six ounces of water. Individual taste preferences can be accommodated by adjusting this. Examine the cup lines or indications on your individual brewer to discover how they are truly calibrated to measure. Also keep in mind that certain brewing processes result in some water being wasted due to evaporation.

Water Temperature

First and foremost, safety! Of course, if you are working with heat or hot beverages, you should take all essential steps to ensure the safety of everyone involved, from those preparing the coffee to those serving and consuming it. For maximum extraction, your brewer should maintain a water temperature between 195 and 205 degrees Fahrenheit in the brewing vessel. A flat, under-extracted cup of coffee will result from using cold water, while a cup of coffee made with hot water will result in a loss of quality in the flavor.

  • Remove the water from the heat source and allow it to cool for a minute before pouring it over the coffee grinds.
  • In addition, many coffee users like to add cream or milk, which has a cooling impact as well.
  • The following are some of the reasons why it is preferable to serve coffee immediately after brewing it, when it is still hot and freshly ground.
  • Lower temperatures should be considered when serving hot beverages, particularly in retail or clinical care settings where there is a danger of burning or scorching.
  • According to one research, coffee users prefer to consume their beverages at temperatures of 140 degrees Fahrenheit or below.
  • We encourage you to explore ourFood Safety Plan Templates andWorkplace Safetyresources for industry-specific information.

We also encourage you to consult with internal counsel before making any safety-related decisions, as NCA cannot provide specific advice regarding any specific working environment or situation.

Brewing Time

Another key taste component to consider is the amount of time the water is in contact with the coffee grinds before it is poured out. It should take around 5 minutes to reach equilibrium in a drip system. If you’re using a French Press to make your coffee, the contact time should be between 2-4 minutes each cup. Espresso has a very short brew time – the coffee is only in contact with the water for around 20-30 seconds while making an espresso. Cold brew, on the other hand, should be steeped for at least 24 hours (about 12 hours).

  • The brew time is very long
  • O ver-extracting
  • Insufficient extraction because the brew time is too short

To get the appropriate balance for your palate, play around with the contact time.

Enjoy your coffee!

Prepared coffee tends to lose its ideal flavor as soon as it is brewed, so only prepare as much coffee as you intend to drink at one time. Alternatives include pouring hot coffee into an insulated thermos and drinking it within an hour after preparation. (Don’t be concerned – old coffee is probably not hazardous, it’s just not very pleasant. No matter what you learn on the Internet, always exercise your best judgment before swallowing anything.) Try to appreciate your coffee with the same thoughtfulness with which it was prepared – inhale the scent and taste the nuances with each sip.

How to Make Coffee Without a Coffee Maker

Is the electricity turned off? Is there no washing machine at the holiday rental? Continue to brew. Each product that we showcase has been picked and vetted by our editorial staff after being thoroughly researched and tested. If you make a purchase after clicking on one of the links on this page, we may receive a commission. A drip coffee maker is owned by around 45 percent of Americans, while a single-cup brewer is owned by another 42 percent, with some overlap between the two groups. But what about the java enthusiasts who don’t have access to a coffee maker, don’t have access to electricity (for example, when camping), or want to brew their mug in a more traditional manner?

Of course, you may use a French press or a pour-over coffee maker, such as this Chemex ($42;, to prepare your coffee.

kitchen or domestic scene with a hand pouring hot water into two cups from a kettle.

Photograph courtesy of Catherine Falls Commercial/Getty Images Before we get started, here are a few general coffee best practices to keep in mind:

  • Find out when your beans were born. That is to say, we are talking about roast date. With beans that have been roasted within two weeks of purchase, you’ll have the greatest handmade coffee possible. Make use of the freshest coffee you can find. In order to get the best taste out of your coffee beans, you should buy them whole and grind them to your specified coarseness (using something like this Cuisinart Coffee Bar Coffee Grinder
  • $27 on Amazon). Keep an eye on the temperature. Ideally, the temperature of the water used to make coffee should be approximately 200 degrees Fahrenheit.

4 Ways to Make Coffee Without a Coffee Maker

If you don’t have access to a microwave, this is a tried-and-true method of brewing coffee. As long as you have a gas stove, it will also operate even if you are not connected to the electricity.

  • Start with six ounces of cold water per serving to get things started. Then, in a small saucepan, heat the water over medium-high heat until it boils. To make each dish, add 1 heaping spoonful of coffee to the pan. If desired, sugar can be added at this time. Bring the coffee mixture to a boil
  • Remove from heat. Allow for 2 minutes of boiling time, stirring periodically. Remove from heat, allow it settle for 4 minutes, then gently and carefully remove the coffee from the pan to ensure that the grounds remain in the pan — and out of your cup(s) of choice
  • If desired, add sugar and/or cream to taste.

2. Make Turkish Coffee

This method, which is similar to stovetop coffee but a little more time-consuming, produces a thick, foamy, and robust brew.

Although it is not a completely traditional method for making Turkish coffee, it is one of the most effective for producing a very deep brew. Yes, the grinds should be placed in the cup at the end of the process.

  • Start with 6 ounces of cold water per serving to get things going. Then, in a small saucepan, heat the water over low heat until it comes to a boil. To make each dish, add 1 heaping spoonful of coffee to the pan. If desired, sugar can be added at this time. Remove the water from the heat when it is just ready to boil and skim off any froth that has formed. Make a foamy layer in your coffee cup(s)
  • Replacing the pan on the stove and waiting for it to come back to a boil is the best way to end the process
  • Half of the coffee should be poured into your coffee cup(s)
  • Turn on the heat again and cook for another minute or two. Remove the pan from the heat after another 15 seconds of boiling. Fill a coffee cup halfway with the entire mixture (s). Allow for 2 or 3 minutes of resting time so that the coffee may drop to the bottom.

3. Try a Faux French Press

You may achieve the same results as you would with a French press coffee machine by utilizing a coffee mug, bowl, and spoon.

  • On the stove, bring water to a boil in a saucepan. Pour 1 heaping tablespoon of coffee per serving into a large mixing bowl. Using a small amount of boiling water to saturate the grounds, add 6 ounces of water per serving to make a cup of tea. Make use of a spoon to press the coffee grounds to the bottom of the mixing bowl
  • And The remainder of the liquid should be poured into your coffee cup(s) by pressing down on the spoon on top of the grounds
  • If desired, add sugar and/or cream to taste.

4. Create a Coffee Bag

In order to make less bitter coffee, stock up on coffee filters (such as If You Care Unbleached Coffee Filters, $7.19 for 100; to use with this stovetop technique (which is available for $7.19 for 100;

  • Prepare a single filter by placing it on the counter and adding 2 heaping teaspoons of coffee. (We believe that this approach has to be improved to account for the filter and the amount of flavor that can “escape.”) Tie the filter’s ends together using string to keep them from unraveling. Consider a package that resembles a tea bag. Place this bag in the bottom of your coffee cup. Bring a small pot of water to a boil
  • Remove from heat. Pour enough water into the coffee bag to just cover the grounds, and then let the grounds soak for 30 seconds before discarding the bag. Fill your coffee cup halfway with 6 ounces of water
  • Allow for 4 minutes of steeping time before removing the bag. If desired, add sugar and/or cream to taste.

How To Brew Great Coffee Without a Coffee Maker?

I’d want to make a confession. My day doesn’t officially begin until I’ve had my first cup of coffee in the morning. I’m a zombie until it happens, and I’m looking forward to downing that first cup. Caffeine gives me the energy I need to get through the day. However, it is not simply the caffeine that is to blame. It’s a routine, a ritual that I go through every morning that helps me get a handle on my day. On rare occasions, though, I find myself waking up in a location where there is no coffee machine.

  1. It even happened to me lately, when a glass Chemex was knocked over and smashed in my own kitchen sink.
  2. Fortunately, coffee may still be made without the use of a coffee machine.
  3. The ability to make excellent coffee without the use of a coffee machine is actually rather simple to master.
  4. If you have a filter, make sure to include that in the mix as well.
The Importance of Freshly Roasted Coffee

Despite the fact that you will not require a coffee machine, you will require freshly roasted coffee beans. One of the most important factors affecting the taste of a cup of coffee is the quality of the beans used to create it, and nothing beats freshly roasted beans in this regard. Aromatic compounds account for around 80% of the flavor of a cup of coffee, and these compounds diminish as roasted coffee matures. If coffee is allowed to rest for an extended period of time after roasting, it will get stale.

If you use coffee that has been roasted within the last two weeks, you will enjoy a cup of coffee that is deliciously fragrant and full of caffeine.

The Need for a Coffee Grinder

It will also be necessary to have access to a coffee grinder in order to crush up the beans and unleash all of their aromatics. Even in the earliest days of coffee consumption in Western Europe, freshly ground coffee was served to customers. When writing to her sister Cassandra about her brother’s upcoming visit, Jane Austen wrote, “It is rather impertinent to suggest any household care to a housekeeper; but I just venture to say that the coffee-mill will be needed every day while Edward is at Steventon, as he always drinks coffee for breakfast.” “It is rather impertinent to suggest any household care to a housekeeper,” she wrote.

It is interesting to note that Jane Austen demands a coffee mill (grinder), but she makes no mention of a coffee machine in her request.

TheHario Milland thePorlex Mini are two manual grinders that I particularly appreciate. Both are burr grinders, which means they’ll provide a fine, consistent grind, and they’re both pretty small in terms of size.

The Final Ingredient: Hot Water

In the end, you’ll still require hot water that’s just below boiling. If you want to extract the most solubles from coffee grinds, use water that is between 195 and 205°F. If you don’t want to use hot water, use cold water. Water will not scorch the grounds when used within this range, but it will bring out their tastes and aromatics when used outside of it. It is not necessary to use a thermometer to monitor the temperature of your water. After all, who carries a thermometer around with them?

Any device with a handle can be used as a kettle to heat water on the stove top.

Now to Brew Coffee without a Coffee Maker

There are two methods for preparing coffee without the use of a typical coffee machine. If you have a filter, the approach you’ll want to utilize will be determined by that fact. Makeshift pour-overs are possible with the use of a filter. If you don’t have access to a filter, an immersion brew, comparable to a French press, will yield the greatest results.

Method 1: Creating a Makeshift Pour-Over

Placing your filter on top of your coffee cup will allow you to construct a makeshift pour-over. It doesn’t matter if you have a thick or thin filter; what matters is that it be free of contaminants. Paper filters are inexpensive, simple to get, and convenient to transport. If you don’t have one, you may use a clean cloth tied to a sieve instead. Once the filter is in place, you may do the following:

  1. Rinse the filter thoroughly with hot water, discarding the rinsing water. For each cup of coffee you intend to brew, measure one tablespoon of coffee into a measuring cup. Grind your coffee beans to a medium, sand-like consistency
  2. And Allow at least 30 seconds (or more if your beans are very fresh) after soaking the grinds in some water to pass through them. Half of the remaining water should be poured during a 30-second period. Using three or four smaller steps, pour in the remaining water.

So there you have it – your very own cup of delicious coffee to get you started on your day! If you believe it’s too bitter, increase the amount of coffee you use. If it’s too sour, lower the amount of coffee you use to make it sweeter again.

Method 2: Mimicking a French Press

When working without a filter, you’ll be forced to employ an immersion method, which is similar to how French presses operate. Simply:

  1. For each cup of coffee you intend to brew, measure one tablespoon of coffee into a measuring cup. Use a coarse setting to grind your coffee, such that it has the texture of sea salt. If you’re using freshly brewed coffee, wet the grounds and let them sit for 30 seconds. Fill the rest of your glass with water
  2. Allow for a 4-minute resting period for the coffee. It should be poured gently into the cup you will be drinking from, and you should stop before the grounds go into your cup. This way, you’ll have a cup of coffee that’s uniformly brewed and doesn’t have too much coffee trapped at the bottom.

Don’t be concerned the next time you wake up and there isn’t a coffee machine accessible. It is not necessary to have a challenging morning. People have been brewing excellent coffee for years, long before coffee machines were ubiquitous, and it is a simple process. Simply follow the instructions outlined above, and you will enjoy a pleasant, coffee-filled morning.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *